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 TACL B001976C                                                            

  1. Airborne contaminate: Pollutants that fit into three categories: (a) microorganisms: like bacteria, viruses and mold, (b) toxic gases: like formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, etc., and (c) house dust: a mixture of dead skin, insect parts, dust mite feces, paint flakes, hair, dander, fibers, etc.
  2. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ): The least amount of indoor airborne contaminates suggest the best IAQ. Whereas, the higher the indoor contaminate levels the poorer the IAQ. Most homes have medium to poor IAQ. Even though homes have different levels of airborne contaminates, all homes will be infected in some way, whether it be chemical, germs or toxins.
  3. Organic chemicals: Carbon based compounds are referred to as organic. The most abundant carbon compounds are hydrocarbons, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon. Also nitrogen and oxygen combined with carbon are classified organic. Most manmade materials are based upon organic chemistry, including gases that power our cars, hairsprays, permanent pressed clothes, to clothing material itself. We are completely surrounded by organic compounds because all living things are based upon carbon. When the air is contaminated, that contaminate will normally be organic, whether alive or dead.
  4. Categories of Microbes: (a) pathogens, direct infection and destruction of tissue cells, (b) toxins, gases and fumes produce by microbes that have a toxic neurological effect, and (c) allergens, microbes or debris that cause a mal adjusted immune response.
  5. Mold byproducts: (a) mold spores: airborne seeds is a mild allergen, (b) enzyme mycelium: a sticky mold secretion that digests carbohydrates and proteins, a very powerful allergen, (c) toxins: gases, like formaldehyde, generated during mold enzyme digestive process.
  6. Immune Response: When germs or allergens enters the body, the immune response starts by the action of T-lymphocytes (T-Cells) prompting the formation of anti-bodies, called immunoglobulin. The anti-bodies also prompt the production of very powerful chemicals (histamine, leukotrienes, cytokines, proteases, etc.) that are used to wage war on bacteria, viruses or fungi.
  7. Immune Deficiency Disorders: A disorder where the body has a problem in producing anti-bodies. This disorder means the natural defenses of the body are reduced, putting the body at risk for diseases. A genetic problem or the use of drugs for an organ transplant can suppress the immune response. A person with suppressed immune system has to be extremely careful about germ infections, particularly bioaerosols.
  8. Allergies: Allergies are caused by is an ove active immune response to a rather benign intrusion of a particle or organism. The response produces such large doses of powerful chemicals (like histamines) the tissue in the target area become chemically inflamed, tender and swollen. In the nasal area, mucus production increases, eyes water, nose drains. The infected person is responding to chemical poisoning produced by his/her own body.
  9. Types of Allergies: (a) Allergic Rhinitis: nasal and upper respiratory inflammation, (b) Sinusitis: inflammation of the paranasal sinus cavities, and (c) Asthma: inflammation of the air bronchial tube near the lungs.
  10. Major Allergens: (a) airborne pollens, (b) fungal spores and mycelia, (c) domestic animals, (c) Arthropods, dust mite and cockroach debris.
  11. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A disorder in which the person (or child) has a short attention span, a nervous condition, short temper, mood swings, high energy followed by fatigue. It is a behavior disorder that can be caused by physiological problems. But a growing body in medicine believes that ADHD sufferers are reacting to allergens, i.e. allergies from food inhalants, mold, and chemicals. Allergies cause a release of potent chemicals and histamines into the body that affect metabolism and central nervous system.
  12. Sick Building Syndrome (SBS): A condition by which the physical building is producing airborne contaminates, making people sick. Bioaerosols (airborne microorganisms) are estimated to be the highest contributing source for SBS. But other ailments, toxins and allergens can be critical. Some symptoms of SBS are chronic congestion, poor concentration, low energy levels, coughs, sore throat, muscle aches, headaches, intestinal problems and sleep disorders.
  13. The causes of SDS: The major causes of SDS can be summarized in five categories: (a) Energy tight buildings trap contaminates inside and it builds up over time. (b) Our life style has elevated indoor contaminates by the use of indoor chemicals, contaminate producing equipment and more indoor living. (c) Equipment that lowers indoor air pressure, causing airborne toxins to infiltrate back indoors from the garage, attic and crawlspace. (d) Dark, damp air conditioning coils that grow abundant mold and bacteria, large sources of indoor airborne diseases and toxins. (e) Central air filters that bio-nest the growth of bacteria and mold, sources of airborne diseases and toxins.
  14. Bioaerosol diseases: Diseases of the body transmitted by airborne germs. Transmission of airborne germs tends to be more deadly and more numerous compared to germs ingested through the stomach or skin absorption. Germs that might be harmless when consumed in food or water may be lethal when inhaled. Even vaccines for diseases contracted through the skin or stomach may not work if the germ is inhaled into the lungs. For example, the vaccine for Rift Valley fever works very well if the disease is transmitted by mosquitoes through the skin but does not work at all if inhaled.
  15. A list of bioaerosol diseases: The list of such diseases is very large. Here is a sampling of bioaerosols: Tuberculosis, Polio, Measles, Pneumonic plague, Diphtheria, Pontiac fever, Chicken pox, Rubella, Influenza, Ebola, Rift valley fever, Lassa fever, Bolivian herorrhagic fever, Marburg, Congo-Crimean herorrhagic fever, Small pox, Legionella, Pulmonary mycoses, etc.
  16. Bioaerosol diseases of the lung: Diseases of the lung are generally caused by airborne contaminates. (a) Emphysema is an abnormal dilation of the lung air spaces, preventing an efficient exchange of oxygen to the bloodstream. Generally caused by a genetic reaction to airborne contaminates like smoke, abrasive particles, toxins, etc. (b) pneumonia: infection of lower lung by airborne viruses and bacteria, like legionella, etc. (c) Allergic alveolitis: inflammation of the lower lung by airborne bacteria, fungi and insect excretions. (d) Mycotoxicosis: toxic inflammation of the lung and heart lining caused by airborne molds. (e) Mycobacterium tuberculosis: lung infection by airborne bacteria. (f) Lung cancer: a genetic tissue mutation disease generally caused by intrusive airborne environmental toxins, poisons and particles.
  17. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC): Organic compounds decay rather quickly compared to non-organic materials. The decay produces airborne gases, like formaldehyde, benzene, xylenes, toluene, methylene chloride, etc. Most household products are organic (paint, fibers, caulking, soaps, glues, household chemicals, etc.) and produce these airborne gases that can be poisonous.
  18. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC): HVAC usually refers to a central air system for heating and cooling a building. This generally includes a furnace, blower assembly, an evaporative coil, a compressor and compressor coil, and air ducts to distribute the conditioned air within the building.
  19. Air conditioning (A/C): This term normally refers to cooling the air of a building. The A/C operates like this: the outdoor portion of the A/C unit compresses a gas to a liquid. During this compression, heat energy is driven out of the liquid. This colder liquid then travels through tubing to the evaporative coil located inside the building at the central/furnace fan. This coil has numerous rows of aluminum fins. These act as heat exchangers with the circulating air within the system. When this compressed liquid reaches the evaporative coil, the liquid expands or evaporates, converting back to a gas. As it does, it recovers the amount of heat energy lost in the compression cycle. This conversion absorbs heat through the coil fins from the surrounding air that is moving across the fins.
  20. Heat pump: Based upon the same HVAC principle, minus the furnace. The compressor and evaporative coil are used for both heating and cooling the building. The difference is the reverse flow in the compressor/evaporative coil assembly. One direction for heating; the other for cooling.
  21. Split system vs. packaged units: (a) a split system means the furnace, blower housing and evaporative coil are in one unit (generally indoors or the garage) and the A/C compressor and compressor coil are outside. The inside unit is connected to the outside by insulted tubing (called a "run") for carrying the liquefied gas. (b) A packaged unit means all systems are combined into one unit, i.e., furnace, blower, evaporative coil, compressor and compressor coil. Since the compressor gives off heat, the packaged unit is located outside, often on the roof.
  22. Upflow vs. Downflow: (a) Upflow means the HVAC blower pushes the conditioned air up into ducts located in the attic (or ceiling sophist) and out registers located in or near the ceiling. If you have the upflow unit in the basement, the air registers could be in the floor. (b) Downflow means the HVAC blower pushes the conditioned air down into ducts located in the crawlspace or basement, and out the registers in the floor.
  23. Wavelength: The difference in each type of wave energy is the wavelength or the distance across this wave. The shorter the distance across the wave, the shorter the wavelength the stronger the energy. The difference in the wavelength determines how the wave affects its surroundings.
  24. Nanometer (nm): Nanometer means one-billionth of a meter. It is used to determine the wavelength or the distance across this wave. If a wavelength is one nanometer it is one-billionth of a meter across, etc.
  25. Spectral electromagnetic energy: Cosmic, gamma, x-rays and "C" band UV are all classified short-wave electromagnetic energy. Visible light is at middle ground, at 400-700 nm on the scale. Infrared light is in the upper end of the spectrum, running from about 800 to 1400 nm, and radio waves are longer yet in the 1400 to 2200 nm range.
  26. Ultraviolet (UV): Ultraviolet light is toward the low end of this spectral scale, from about 100 to 400 nm, with three categories, "A," "B" and "C." UV is beyond the range of visible light and cannot be seen. We only see evidence of its presence.
  27. Germicidal or organic Ultraviolet: The most effective sterilizing range for UV is within the "C" bandwidth. This range is called the germicidal or organic bandwidth. The ideal germicidal curve is considered 240 nm to 280 nm, with the most effective at 265 nm.
  28. Germicidal UV intensity: Germicidal effectiveness is based upon UV intensity. Intensity is measured in microwatts per square centimeter (w/cm). The energy required to destroy a microorganism has one more element, time. It is microwatt-seconds per square centimeter (w x sec/cm), with seconds in the formula meaning the energy in seconds (time) necessary to kill the microorganism
  29. Photochemistry: Photochemical process is defined as a chemical reaction or change in a material induced by the radiation of light energy. Sunburn is a photochemical process that alters the chemistry of the skin, causing a breakdown.
  30. Photodegradable: All organic material, molecules and organisms are photodegradable, at some point within the 100 to 320 nm bandwidths. And within this range, each compound has a characteristic sensitivity where peak chemical alteration will occur.
  31. UV Hydroperoxide Development: This first oxidizing process (within 200 320 nm) is the result of electron ejection by UV irradiation of organic materials, giving rise to free radical (hydrogen ion) development. The radicals react with ordinary atmospheric oxygen (O), forming hydroperoxide (HO) ions.
  32. UV Hydroxide Development: Hydroxide is often referred to as hydroxyl ions. The presence of water (HO) being exposed to UV (200 to 320 nm) strips off one molecule of hydrogen from the water, resulting in the formation of hydroxide (HO) ions. These ions are a stable but a very potent one-electron oxidant. The reason hydroxide is so destructive to organic molecules is it steals hydrogen atoms from the organic materials, leaving decayed carbon ions.
  33. UV and Ozone Production: The stable oxygen (O2) molecule readily absorbs ultraviolet light at 184 nanometers (nm). This absorption of ultraviolet light in the atmosphere breaks the molecular bond between two-oxygen molecules (O2), resulting in an O1 free radical (atomic oxygen). A single atom (O1) of oxygen will immediately search for a stable molecular combination, often O2. This new combination forms ozone (O3), which is highly corrosive.
  34. Hot-Cathode UV Lamp: The hot cathode method of generating ultraviolet refers to elements of the lamp getting hot and igniting the internal gases. Hot cathode lamps generally use tungsten filaments at each end of the tube. These filaments are preheated by employing a glow switch starter and choke or an electronic trigger. This makes the hot cathode UV lamps similar to standard preheat fluorescent lamps used for lighting our homes and offices.
  35. Cold-Cathode UV lamp: Cold cathode means it begins from a cold start - no preheating. This type of lamp uses cylindrical electrodes and is started instantly by means of a high voltage spike. Since the electrodes seldom wear out, the cold cathode lamp normally has a much longer life compared to the hot cathode, filament lamp. The electrode lamp has another advantage. This lamp may be operated in very cold temperatures without excessive blackening of the glass, thus little or no loss of UV output. The high voltage assures a fast, instant start even at freezing temperatures.



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